Introduction Ingredients Spectra Attributes The Human Eye Color Mixing General Terms
Color Spaces How to measure Color Scales Color Effects After Images Contents






The three ingredients of appearance recognition


The Light

The Light is something that makes things visible or affords illumination. All colors depend on light. After looking at small color samples and selecting a wallpaper which looks good, people sometimes find that it looks too bright when it is actually hung on the wall.  Colors covering a large area tend to appear brighter and more vivid than colors covering a smaller area. This is referred to as area effect. 


Anything that is visible or tangible and is stable in form is a so-called Object. Selecting Objects which will have a large area based on color samples having a small area may result in mistakes.


An Observer is a person or thing that observes. The Sensitivity of each individual's Eye is slightly different; even for people considered to have  "normal color vision" , there may be some bias toward red and blue. Also, person's eyesight generally changes with age. Because of these factors, colors will appear differently to each observer.

The Physics of Light

Light is an Electromagnetic radiation to which the organs of sight react ranging in wavelength from about 4000 to 7000"Ångström units" and is propagated at a speed of about 300,000 kilometers per second.

White Light

White Light is composed of Electromagnetic vibrations, the wavelengths of which are evenly distributed from 40 to 70  "millionths of a centimeter". If the intensity of these vibrations is strong ( great amplitude ) the Light is white;  if the intensity is less, the Light is weak and if the intensity is zero, the Light is non-existent or black.


"normal color vision" 

See The Human Eye's  Blindness

"Ångström units" A unit of length, equal to one tenth of a "millimicron" or one ten-millionth of a millimeter, primarily used to express electromagnetic wavelengths. 
Named after A.J. Ångström.


Ångström, Anders, Jonas
(Swedish physicist)
Lögdö Sweden
Uppsala Sweden

" millionths of a centimeter" Equal to 10-8 meter. ( 0.00 000 001 meter)
" millimicron"   Equal to 10-9 meter or one nanometer.  ( 0.000 000 001 meter)

Length Conversion

1 nm = 10-9 m = 10-6 mm = 10-3 µm
1 µm = 10-6 m = 10-3 mm = 1000 nm


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